An Ultimate Guide to Camarasaurus: The Chambered Lizard

Leave a comment / / Updated on: 23rd September 2023

Name Meaning“Chambered lizard”Height6 meters (19.69 feet)
Pronunciationkah-muh-ruh-SAWR-usLength18 meters (59 feet)
EraMesozoicLate Jurassic PeriodWeight20-60 tons (22-66 short tons)
ClassificationDinosauria,‭ Saurischia & SauropodomorphaLocationColorado, Utah, Wyoming, Oklahoma; Western United States

Camarasaurus Pictures

Camarasaurus is a dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic period
Camarasaurus is a dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic period | Elena Malgina via iStock

The Camarasaurus

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Camarasaurus Concept
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Camarasaurus Concept

During the Late Jurassic period, approximately 150 million years ago, the remarkable dinosaur known as Camarasaurus roamed the Earth.

Its name, derived from the Latin words for “chambered lizard,” was bestowed upon this reptile due to its unique feature of having hollow vertebral chambers within its body.

These chambers, thought to be connected to its respiratory system, marked Camarasaurus as one of the first dinosaurs discovered with specialized breathing adaptations.

3D illustration of Camarasaurus
3D illustration of Camarasaurus | MR1805 via iStock

Beyond its distinctive skeletal structure, Camarasaurus stood out as one of the largest dinosaurs of its time, boasting an impressive length of up to 60 feet and weighing several tons.

This dinosaur’s colossal size, coupled with its intriguing traits, captured the attention of scientists and dinosaur enthusiasts, cementing its significance in the field of paleontology.

As the Late Jurassic period unfolded, Camarasaurus played a crucial role in the intricate web of life.

Its adaptations allowed it to thrive in the diverse ecosystems of that time period.

This prehistoric creature’s immense stature, coupled with its unusual characteristics, continues to captivate our imaginations, making it a subject of fascination and a valuable focus of scientific research.

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Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Shirt Collection
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Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Plush Collection

Physical Characteristics

Camarasaurus was a genus of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs and is the most common North American sauropod fossil.

Its fossil remains have been found in the Morrison Formation, dating to the Late Jurassic period, from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian stages, between 155 and 145 million years ago.

Camarasaurus derived its name from the Latin words “camara,” meaning “chamber,” and “saurus,” meaning “lizard.”

The name referred to the hollow chambers present within its vertebrae, a distinctive feature of this colossal giant.

Camarasaurus was a herbivore dinosaur that lived in the Jurassic Era of Western America
Camarasaurus was a herbivore dinosaur that lived in the Jurassic Era of Western America | CoreyFord via iStock

These air-filled cavities, connected to the respiratory system, were among the first documented examples of specialized breathing adaptations found in dinosaurs.

The presence of these chambers suggests that Camarasaurus had an efficient respiratory system, allowing it to survive in its prehistoric environment.

In terms of physical appearance, Camarasaurus boasted several characteristic traits.

It possessed an elongated neck, a robust body, and a long, whip-like tail.

The neck of Camarasaurus was a significant adaptation that enabled the dinosaur to feed on vegetation at varying heights.

This flexibility in browsing allowed Camarasaurus to access a wide range of plant food sources, giving it an advantage in finding nourishment.

The head of Camarasaurus was relatively small in proportion to its massive body and featured a blunt snout.

Camarasaurus had a long neck and a long tail, with a relatively small head in proportion to its body
Camarasaurus had a long neck and a long tail, with a relatively small head in proportion to its body | kipgodi via iStock

Like other basal Macronarians, Camarasaurus had a unique cranial morphology, with an arching cranium that was extremely square.

Its jaws were equipped with rows of sharp, chisel-like teeth that were well-suited for slicing through vegetation and grinding tough plant material.

However, what truly set Camarasaurus apart was its impressive size.

It stood as one of the largest dinosaurs of its time, reaching extraordinary dimensions.

Estimates suggest that Camarasaurus could grow up to 60 feet in length from head to tail.

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Kosmoceratops Size Chart Comparison
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Camarasaurus Size Chart Comparison

When standing on all fours, it would have reached heights of around 20 feet at the shoulder.

In terms of weight, adult Camarasaurus individuals are estimated to have weighed between 20 and 40 tons, equivalent to the weight of several modern-day elephants.

Such immense size allowed Camarasaurus to dominate its ecosystem, serving as a formidable presence in the Late Jurassic landscape.

To support its colossal frame and well-built body structure, Camarasaurus possessed robust and sturdy legs, which enabled it to bear its weight and move with relative ease across its habitat.

Camarausaurus exhibited a characteristic common among long-necked dinosaurs, with its forelimbs being slightly shorter than its hind limbs.

Completing its anatomy, Camarasaurus possessed a long and muscular tail that played a crucial role in locomotion.

Acting as a counterbalance, the tail helped maintain stability while the dinosaur moved.

Camarasaurus showing its powerful tail
Camarasaurus showing its powerful tail | CoreyFord via iStock

Additionally, the tail served as a formidable defensive weapon, capable of delivering powerful strikes to deter potential predators.

The remarkable Camarasaurus, with its unique adaptations and massive size, held a significant place in the Late Jurassic ecosystem.

Its efficient respiratory system, elongated neck, and robust body allowed it to thrive on a herbivorous diet, making use of the diverse plant resources available during that time.

Habitat and Distribution

Camarasaurus’s favored habitat and distribution pattern provide light on the dinosaur’s habits and geographical distribution.

The western parts of what is now the United States—states like Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Oklahoma—were formerly home to Camarasaurus.

This dinosaur apparently thrived in these regions, as shown by the presence of fossils and scientific research.

Camarasaurus fossils have been unearthed from several different rock layers, including the Morrison Formation, which is renowned for its extensive dinosaur fossils from the Late Jurassic period.

Large wetlands, river valleys, and floodplains were Camarasaurus’s habitat of choice.

This herbivorous dinosaur would have been found to eat in these biomes, which had a variety of forest and woodland types.

Camarasaurus did particularly well in these environments because of the unique adaptations it had developed, such as its long neck and strong teeth, which enabled it to graze on plants at varying heights and digest diverse plant materials.

A herd of Camarasaurus dinosaurs busy eating vegetation in its habitat
A herd of Camarasaurus dinosaurs busy eating vegetation in its habitat | CoreyFord via iStock

Camarasaurus‘ habitat choices possibly factored on the proximity of water features like rivers and lakes.

The dinosaur’s enormous herbivorous appetite would have been supported by the availability of these water sources for drinking and for encouraging the development of luxuriant plants. 

It’s important to remember that Camarasaurus wasn’t confined to a particular area of North America when discussing its range.

From what we can tell from Camarasaurus fossils, this dinosaur was common in the western regions of North America throughout the Late Jurassic.

This pattern of dispersal suggests that Camarasaurus populations spread across a large area, making use of a wide variety of habitat types even within their favored regions.

The widespread occurrence of Camarasaurus fossils lends credence to the theory that this dinosaur species thrived and adapted well.

Its ability to flourish in a variety of habitats is indicative of its ecological adaptability and suggests that it was able to discover and inhabit various geographic areas within the boundaries of its range.

Behavior and Diet

Camarasaurus is on the loose!
Camarasaurus is on the loose! | CoreyFord via iStock

The Camarasaurus was a herbivorous dinosaur with unique social roles and demonstrated particular social behaviors.

Camarasaurus is said to have been a social creature that tended to congregate in large numbers.

According to fossils, mixed-age groups consisting of both children and adults were often discovered together.

This points to a social framework where people of different ages lived and roamed together.

Possible benefits of communal living include better defense against predators and more efficient food collection.

Camarasaurus was a browser, meaning it was a herbivore that mostly grazed on foliage that was high off the ground.

Because of its long neck and unique teeth, it was able to devour a broad range of plant matter that grew high in the forest canopy.

A grazing Camarasaurus
A grazing Camarasaurus | Mark Stevenson via GettyImages

Camarasaurus most likely subsisted on the plethora of ferns, cycads, and conifers that flourished in the Late Jurassic.

Due to its massive size and sturdy build, the animal would have needed a lot of food to keep it going.

Camarasaurus was likely one of the least threatened herbivorous dinosaurs due to its immense stature.

However, it was probably hunted by Allosaurus and other predatory dinosaurs, especially the juveniles, elderly, and sick.

Camarasaurus may have used a variety of defensive mechanisms to keep itself from being eaten.

Its long tail, for example, might be used as a lethal weapon designed for delivering devastating blows to would-be assailants.

Collective defense and coordinated efforts to ward off predators are two further reasons why communal life would have been safer.

Illustration of a Camarasaurus dinosaur
Illustration of a Camarasaurus dinosaur | Sebastian Kaulitzki via GettyImages

As a titanic herbivore, Camarasaurus was crucial to the ecosystem.

The dynamics of the flora in its habitat would have been impacted by its diet and the existence of herds or groups, which in turn would have shaped the surrounding environment.

Its prevalence and adaptability helped maintain a healthy Late Jurassic ecosystem, while its social nature and defenses let it survive as both an ecological community member and a potential prey.

Life Cycle

Camarasaurus lived through a whole life cycle that included maturation, reproduction, and genetic transmission.

Camarasaurus, like other dinosaurs, maintained its species via this cyclical process, helping to maintain the ecological equilibrium of its Late Jurassic environment.

The process starts with the development of young, deposited by adult females.

A young Camarasaurus
A young Camarasaurus | Dorling Kindersley via GettyImages

Camarasaurus, like many other reptiles, probably gave birth to its young by laying eggs.

The eggs would have been nurtured and safeguarded from harm up until the moment they hatched.

Once they hatched, the baby Camarasaurus, also known as juveniles, would have been much smaller than their adult counterparts.

They would have relied on their parents and other mature herd members for safety and guidance.

A phase of accelerated growth would have occurred during their maturation, allowing them to significantly bulk up and become more powerful.

Camarasaurus juveniles and young adults would have had to contend with several difficulties, such as a lack of suitable food and the presence of dangerous predators.

A herd of Camarasaurus
A herd of Camarasaurus | MR1805 via iStock

In the process of honing these abilities, they may have bonded with other members of the herd, made use of their distinctive long tails in defense, and become more efficient browsers.

In their mature years, Camarasaurus would have achieved its full size and begun reproducing.

Male adults may have engaged in aggressive territorial competition or elaborate courting rituals to attract females.

To perpetuate the species and ensure that their genetic characteristics were passed on to subsequent generations, females would have deposited eggs.

And the cycle continues. 

Evolution and History

The long and storied history of Camarasaurus begins in the late 19th century and continues up to the current day.

Othniel Charles Marsh, an esteemed palaeontologist, is credited with dcoumenting the first discovery of Camarasaurus fossils.

Camarasaurus Skeleton Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado
Camarasaurus Skeleton Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado | milehightraveler via iStock

In the 1870s and 1880s, Marsh undertook significant fossil digs in the western United States.

On one of his expeditions, he discovered the skeleton of Camarasaurus in the Morrison Formation.

Numerous Camarasaurus fossils have been unearthed from the Morrison Formation, a geological deposit spanning several states, including Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Oklahoma.

Several paleontologists and fossil chasers gathered these skeletons, each of whom added to our knowledge of this dinosaur.

Thanks to Marsh’s work, we now know more about the Camarasaurus’s physical characteristics, habits, and geographic range than ever before.

Camarasaurus was a long-necked sauropod dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic period.

It belonged to the family Camarasauridae.

Illustration of a camarasaurus on white background
Illustration of a camarasaurus on white background | Sciepro via GettyImages

From what we know about its evolutionary past, it likely underwent significant change and diversification throughout this period, sharing the Earth with other well-known dinosaurs like Allosaurus and Stegosaurus.

Camarasaurus fossils have been unearthed and researched by scientists regularly since the animal’s first discovery, shedding light on the creature’s development and the ancient world.

Reconstructing the anatomy and learning about Camarasaurus‘ function in the Late Jurassic ecology have both been greatly aided by fossil remains, including fragmentary skeletons and isolated fossils.

As a result of its unique characteristics, enormous size, and significant contributions to our understanding of ancient life, Camarasaurus is now widely regarded as an iconic dinosaur.

Its discovery and study have aided in our knowledge of dinosaur evolution and keep interesting researchers and fans all around the globe.

Interactions with Other Species

A community of Camarasaurus
A community of Camarasaurus | Mark Stevenson via GettyImages

Herbivorous dinosaurs like Stegosaurus, Apatosaurus, and other sauropods likely coexisted alongside Camarasaurus. 

Since Camarasaurus were also herbivores, they would have had to compete alongside these other animals for the same food supplies, which presumably included ferns, cycads, and other flora that were abundant during the period.

With the giant’s efficient skill, the Camarasaurus was capable of chomping tougher plant material than any other sauropod, such as the Diplodocus.

According to what was discovered in the Morrison Formation, it seems likely that more sauropods lived together along Camarasaurus, suggesting that they co-exist to counter any prey in the area.

During this time period, sauropods’ unique dietary and foraging abilities enabled these giant dinosaurs to occupy different roles in the ecosystem.

This proves their gigantic sizes play a vital role in their evolutionary success.

A Camarasaurus sauropod dinosaur herd keep watch on their offspring
A Camarasaurus sauropod dinosaur herd keep watch on their offspring | CoreyFord via iStock

Moving in herds, Camarasaurus walked on land, stalked by nearby and hungry predators.

Large theropods, like Allosaurus, may have presented a danger to Camarasaurus, especially young and weaker individuals. 

Camarasaurus’ diets, habitat preferences, and social behaviors would have been influenced by their encounters with rivals and predators, which in turn would have affected the Late Jurassic ecosystems they occupied.

Cultural Significance

Camarasaurus was a sight to behold that captivated paleontologists and fossil hunters.

In fact, this chambered lizard has been documented and featured in numerous books, films, video games and magazines.

The documentary film “When Dinosaurs Roamed America” featured Camarasaurus as one of the dinosaurs showcased in its exploration of prehistoric times.

Camarasaurus in Jurassic World Evolution | Steamblust via JWEFandom

Camarasaurus also made an appearance in the television series “Jurassic Fight Club,” where its behavior and interactions were depicted in recreations of prehistoric battles.

The animated series “Dinosaur Train” included Camarasaurus as one of the dinosaur characters, providing educational content about the dinosaur’s characteristics and habits in a fun and engaging way.

Camarasaurus was featured in the video game “Jurassic Park Builder,” allowing players to interact with and manage a virtual park filled with various dinosaur species, including Camarasaurus.

The video game “Jurassic World: Evolution” included Camarasaurus as one of the dinosaur species that players could raise, manage, and observe in a simulated Jurassic Park environment.

Camarasaurus was showcased in the documentary “PBS The Dinosaurs,” which delved into the fascinating world of dinosaurs and their history, featuring scientific insights and visual representations of Camarasaurus.

In the early access version of the game “Prehistoric Kingdom,” Camarasaurus is included as a playable dinosaur species.

The game offers different skin options depicting three Camarasaurus species: C. lentus, C. grandis, and C. supremus.

Camarasaurus is truly a famous entity in pop culture, known for its humble appearance and sturdy stature.


The Camarasaurus has been crucial in the development of paleontology.

Scientists have learned a lot about this well-known dinosaur’s anatomy, behavior, and ecosystem dynamics thanks to its discovery and subsequent research.

Camarasaurus has helped us better comprehend the variety of ancient life, as well as the development of dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic era.

Furthermore, the Camarasaurus‘ permanency in mainstream culture encourages public interest and curiosity, which in turn helps to keep paleontology alive and thriving and to inspire new generations of scientists and enthusiasts.


Are there different species of Camarasaurus?

Skeletal characteristics and geographic range allowed for the identification of many species of Camarasaurus.

The Camarasaurus supremus, Camarasaurus grandis, and the Camarasaurus lentus are only a few examples.

Are there any known relatives of Camarasaurus?

Like other long-necked herbivores like Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and Apatosaurus, Camarasaurus belongs to the sauropod dinosaur family.

These dinosaurs have many similarities to Camarasaurus and are hence thought to be related to it.

Do museums have Camarasaurus fossils on display?

There are several museums all around the globe that feature Camarasaurus fossils.

The American Museum of Natural History in New York, the Natural History Museum in London, and the Field Museum in Chicago are just a few of the renowned institutions that include Camarasaurus displays.


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