An Ultimate Guide to Procoptodon: The Forward Hill Tooth

Leave a comment / / Updated on: 22nd October 2023

Name Meaning“Forward Hill Tooth”Height2.74 meters (9 feet)
Pronunciationpro-cop-tuh-donLength3 meters (9.84 feet)
EraCenozoic – Quaternary PeriodWeight204 to 241 kgs (450 to 530 lbs)
ClassificationMammalia, Marsupialia & DiprotodontiaLocationAustralia

Procoptodon Marsupial Pictures

Procoptodon | L Feddes via iStock

The Procoptodon

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Procoptodon Concept
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Procoptodon Concept

Australia, known for its unique and diverse wildlife, was once home to a fascinating creature that captivates the imagination with its impressive size and peculiar appearance.

This creature was the Procoptodon, an extinct genus of giant kangaroo that roamed the ancient landscapes of Australia tens of thousands of years ago.

Commonly called the short-faced kangaroo because of its distinct facial structure, this creature belongs to the family Macropodidae, which includes modern kangaroos, wallabies, and related marsupials.

However, the Procoptodon stood out from its modern relatives because of its size and unique adaptations that allowed it to thrive in the diverse habitats of ancient Australia. 

Initial discoveries of Procoptodon fossils happened in the mid-19th century in Australia.

Skeletal structure of Procoptodon when standing
Skeletal structure of Procoptodon when standing | L Feddes via iStock

The earliest known remains laid in the Naracoorte Caves of South Australia in the 1840s.

Subsequently, there were more specimen discoveries across the continent, including Lake Callabonna in South Australia, Lake Menindee in New South Wales, and the Darling Downs region in Queensland.

Over the years, additional specimens have been found, contributing to our understanding of the genus and its evolutionary history.

With the help of these fossils, experts have more knowledge of this creature and how it affected its ecosystem.

The fossils also aid the experts to better understand the prehistoric eras of the world.

This article focuses on several aspects of the Procoptodon, its features, distribution, behavior, and more.

Keep reading to discover more!

Gage Beasley's Prehistoric Shirt Collection
Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Shirt Collection
Gage Beasley's Prehistoric Plush Collection
Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Plush Collection

Physical Characteristics

The most notable feature of the Procoptodon is its size.

This creature was a testament to the extraordinary diversity of prehistoric mammals, easily towering over any living kangaroo species today.

The average Procoptodon’s height was around nine feet, and they weighed as much as 530 pounds.

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Procoptodon Concept
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Procoptodon Size Comparison Chart

For an animal that size, the Procoptodon had a unique skeletal structure adapted to support its massive size and distinctive mode of locomotion.

Its skeleton featured robust and well-developed musculature, especially in the hind limbs, essential for powerful jumping and hopping.

The hind legs were elongated, providing the necessary leverage for propelling the creature forward in leaps and bounds.

The hind limbs of the Procoptodon were the key to its remarkable jumping abilities, and unlike contemporary kangaroos, its femur (thigh bone) was much longer and thicker, producing more force during takeoff.

Because of this adaptation, the Procoptodon could move across great distances quickly and outrun most of its predators.

While the Procoptodon’s forelimbs were not as developed as its hind limbs, they were still necessary for various functions.

The forearm bones (radius and ulna) were thick and robust, indicating their ability to bear weight.

Procoptodon in white background
Procoptodon in white background | Nobu Tamura via Wikipedia CC BY-SA 4.0

Also, the hands of the Procoptodon featured sharp, curved claws that were likely used for gathering food, defending against predators, and maintaining balance.

However, these forelimbs did not contribute as much to the creature’s locomotion.

Another distinguishing feature of the Procoptodon was its bipedal hopping locomotion.

This specialized movement involved its powerful hind limbs pushing forward with long, rhythmic leaps.

Its large tail served as a counterbalance, maintaining stability and direction during high-speed hops.

Bipedal hopping provided the Procoptodon with significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency.

The creature reduced the amount of energy used during movement by predominantly hopping.

With each leap, the elastic tendons in its legs released and stored energy, lowering the metabolic cost of locomotion.

The combination of its size and specialized locomotion made the Procoptodon an agile and fast-moving creature.

Procoptodon ready to leap
Procoptodon ready to leap | Andreone93 via Dinopedia Fandom

It probably could achieve up to 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour) during its bounding hops.

This impressive speed allowed the Procoptodon to escape predators, navigate its environment, and efficiently forage for food across the vast prehistoric Australian landscape.

It also helped the creature develop agile muscles to support its frame and movement, and these muscles also played a crucial role in maintaining balance and stability while in motion.

The arrangement and coordination of the muscles in its hindlimbs, forelimbs, and tail allowed for elastic energy storage and release, enabling the Procoptodon to conserve energy while achieving impressive speeds and covering vast distances efficiently.

Habitat and Distribution

As mentioned, the Procoptodon lived in Australia during the Pleistocene Epoch.

During this period, the climate in Australia was considerably different from the climate today.

The continent experienced significant fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, leading to the emergence of various habitats.

The Procoptodon inhabited environments that ranged from grasslands, and these open plains provided ample grazing opportunities for this herbivorous giant kangaroo, and a clear line of sight, to detect potential predators.

In addition to grasslands, the Procoptodon inhabited open woodlands, where it could find shelter, water, and a varied diet.

These regions would have provided a more diverse selection of plants and resources, allowing the giant kangaroo to adapt its diet to seasonal changes.

The Procoptodon’s preferred diet also influenced its habitat choice, and as a herbivore, it ate different vegetation, including grasses, leaves, and shrubs.

Procoptodon in the grassland
Procoptodon in the grassland | Image via The Creature Art of LDN RDNT

As such, it inhabited areas with abundant vegetation, making foraging easier.

The Procoptodon’s primary distribution was across various habitats throughout Australia.

Fossil evidence indicates that it inhabited different environments, including grasslands, open woodlands, and shrublands extending from the coastal areas of southeastern Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, to the arid interior regions of the continent.

Notable sites include the Naracoorte Caves in South Australia, Lake Menindee in New South Wales, and the Darling Downs region of Queensland.

These fossil discoveries have provided valuable insights into this ancient marsupial’s morphology, behavior, and distribution.

Behavior and Diet

Procoptodon on the lookout
Procoptodon on the lookout | Image via The Creature Art of LDN RDNT

Despite the difficulty of determining an extinct species’ social behavior, experts confirmed that the Procoptodon displayed social behavior, forming organized groups or herds.

Like modern kangaroos, they likely lived in matriarchal societies, with females leading the groups.

One of the primary advantages of social living in Procoptodon was the enhanced ability to defend against predators.

As herbivorous creatures, Procoptodon were susceptible to attacks by large carnivores, such as the Thylacoleo.

They could better protect their offspring and fend off predators by banding together, with the bigger group probably serving as a deterrence, lowering the possibility of an assault.

Also, this social behavior likely depended on environmental factors.

The availability of resources, such as food and water, could have played a role in determining the size and stability of social groups.

Moreover, changes in climate and vegetation patterns could also have impacted the formation and dynamics of Procoptodon herds over time.

Ark Survival Procoptodon on the hunt
Ark Survival Procoptodon on the hunt | Image via NicePNG

Scientists hypothesize that Procoptodons used a variety of vocalizations, body language, and visual cues to communicate among their social groupings despite the lack of concrete evidence for their communication.

Coordinating feeding, mating, and defense against predators would have been easier with the help of these communication methods.

Also, these communication methods likely helped warn others of danger, particularly the young still reliant on their mothers.

The formation of social groups likely played a crucial role in raising the young and providing protection and support for the vulnerable offspring.

Female Procoptodon probably formed close bonds with their offspring, ensuring their survival and development.

Further study and examination of the fossilized bones may reveal more information about their communication.

The Procoptodon was herbivorous and inhabited regions that supported its diet.

Restoration of P. goliah browsing for food
Restoration of P. goliah browsing for food | Apokryltaros via Wikipedia CC BY 3.0

Although its preferred food source is unknown, its anatomy and available ecological data suggest it had a varied diet.

According to this evidence, the Procoptodon likely fed on a diet consisting mainly of grasses, which were abundant in its habitat.

Its diet also probably included fruits, seeds, leaves, and shrubs, and based on its large size and powerful hind limbs, scientists believe the Procoptodon was primarily a grazer.

Its robust body structure suggests it could consume vegetation, including fibrous grasses and shrubs.

The Procoptodon likely used a browsing technique, reaching higher branches to feed on leaves and tender shoots.

Life Cycle

Procoptodon possessed a reproductive system typical of marsupials.

Baby Procoptodon in Ark Survival Game
Baby Procoptodon in Ark Survival Game | Image via ProGameTalk

They had a short gestation period of approximately 30-40 days, and the female Procoptodon kept her tiny, immature young, known as joeys, in her pouch for a considerable time after giving birth.

The pouch provided the joeys a secure and caring habitat, enabling them to continue growing outside the womb.

Procoptodon joeys spent most of their early development inside their mother’s pouch.

During this time, they would attach themselves to one of the four teats within the pouch, feeding on their mother’s milk.

The milk provided vital nutrients required for their growth, and as the joeys grew, they gradually emerged from the pouch and explored their surroundings.

However, they would still return to this confinement for safety and nourishment until they reached a particular size and independence.

Upon adulthood, Procoptodon would become more independent and establish social structures within their groups.

They were likely to form small herds or family units, providing safety and support against predators.

Procoptodon herd in ARK Survival Game
Procoptodon herd in ARK Survival Game | Image via GuidedNews

The social bonds among individuals were essential for their survival, as they could alert each other to potential threats and share resources.

During the breeding season, typically during the cooler months, male Procoptodon likely competed fiercely to win the right to mate with receptive females.

They probably displayed dominance through boxing matches, using their powerful hind legs to deliver strong kicks.

The victor would then have the privilege to mate with the female. 

Evolution and History

The Procoptodon belongs to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, and their relatives.

It falls under the subfamily Sthenurinae, characterized by its short face and robust build.

Procoptodon feeding her young
Procoptodon feeding her young | Image via Gallerix

There are several known species of Procoptodon, including Procoptodon goliah, Procoptodon browneorum, and Procoptodon rapha.

This creature provides valuable insights into the evolutionary history of marsupials, particularly kangaroos.

As mentioned, it belongs to a group of kangaroos known as the Sthenurines, characterized by their robust build and short faces.

These kangaroos represent an evolutionary experiment within the kangaroo lineage, adapting to different ecological niches, unlike their extant relatives.

The first fossils of the Procoptodon were discovered in the early 19th century in various parts of Australia.

These findings included skeletal remains, teeth, and fragments of its large toe bones, known as metapodials, which were distinctive due to their size and shape.

An artist’s illustration of Procoptodon goliah | Rtrifunovski via Dinopedia Fandom

By studying the anatomy of these remains, scientists reconstructed the appearance and lifestyle of the Procoptodon, shedding light on the diversity of marsupials in prehistoric Australia.

Despite their adaptability and successful evolution, Procoptodon faced a decline in population during the late Pleistocene.

The arrival of humans in Australia approximately 50,000 years ago coincided with significant climate shifts and environmental changes, leading to the extinction of many native species, including Procoptodon

Interactions with Other Species

During the Pleistocene epoch, Procoptodon shared its habitat with different animals.

Giant marsupials, huge reptiles, and large birds were common during this period, and although direct evidence of interactions between Procoptodon and other species is limited, their coexistence likely influenced their respective adaptations and resource utilization strategies.

Diprotodon competing for food with Procoptodon
Diprotodon competing for food with Procoptodon | ARC CoE CABAH via Wikipedia CC BY-SA 4.0

Procoptodon’s interactions with other large herbivores, such as the diprotodon and the giant wombat, would have involved competition for food resources and possibly territorial disputes.

While this creature’s size and strength provided some protection against potential predators, encounters with formidable carnivorous species were inevitable.

The presence of large marsupial lions (Thylacoleo carnifex) and giant monitor lizards (Varanus priscus) suggests that Procoptodon had to employ defensive strategies to survive.

Also, this creature’s existence as a large herbivore potentially influenced the dispersal of plants and played a crucial part in the survival of various plant species.

The Procoptodon may have unintentionally spread seeds across great distances through its digestive tract by ingesting plant debris and grains.

It is possible that some of these grains survived the enormous kangaroo’s digestive process and sprouted into new plant groups.

Furthermore, the Procoptodon’s selective grazing habits could have shaped the distribution and abundance of different plant species, contributing to the overall ecosystem structure.

Cultural Significance

Procoptodon in ARK Surivival: Evolved
Procoptodon in ARK Surivival: Evolved | Image Clip via ARK: Survival Evolved

In Australian Aboriginal culture, the Dreamtime represents the creation era when ancestral spirits shaped the land, its inhabitants, and its laws.

The Procoptodon features in Dreamtime stories, symbolizing strength, wisdom, and resilience.

Its presence in these narratives showcases its cultural significance and its association with the ancient and sacred traditions of Australia’s indigenous communities.

This creature is also represented in various art forms throughout history.

Indigenous rock art often depicts these giant kangaroos, emphasizing their role as part of Aboriginal culture and heritage.

Additionally, contemporary artists continue to draw inspiration from the Procoptodon, creating captivating paintings, sculptures, and even jewelry that pay homage to this majestic creature.

The Procoptodon is a poignant symbol of Australia’s rich biodiversity and the importance of conservation efforts.

Its extinction is a reminder of the delicate balance between humans and nature.

The Procoptodon’s cultural significance helps raise awareness about the need to protect and preserve Australia’s unique ecosystems for future generations.

Also, scientific studies of the Procoptodon provide valuable insights into Australia’s prehistoric past.

Procoptodon goliah specimen
Procoptodon goliah specimen | Rodney Start via Wikipedia CC BY-SA 4.0

Fossils and skeletal remains have offered clues about the animal’s behavior, diet, and environmental adaptations.

Through ongoing research, scientists continue to unravel the mysteries surrounding the Procoptodon, deepening our understanding of Australia’s natural history and evolutionary processes.


The Procoptodon, an extinct genus of giant kangaroo, holds immense cultural significance in Australia.

Its unique physical characteristics, such as its towering height and powerful hind limbs, made it an agile and fast-moving creature that could reach speeds of up to 40 kilometers per hour.

It inhabited various habitats across Australia, including grasslands and open woodlands, and its social behavior involved forming organized groups or herds for protection against predators.

The Procoptodon’s diet consisted mainly of grasses but also included fruits, seeds, leaves, and shrubs.

As a marsupial, it exhibited typical reproductive behaviors, with females carrying their young, known as joeys, in their pouches.

The Procoptodon’s fossils have provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of marsupials and their interactions with other species during the Pleistocene epoch.

Today, it is celebrated in Australian Aboriginal culture, represented in Dreamtime stories and artwork, and serves as a reminder of the importance of conservation and preserving Australia’s unique ecosystems.


Does the Procoptodon have other names?

Yes, the Procoptodon is also commonly known by other names.

One of its most well-known alternative names is the “giant short-faced kangaroo.”

This name reflects its large size and distinctive short face compared to other kangaroo species.

Additionally, the Procoptodon has been referred to as short-faced kangaroo and sthenurine kangaroo.

What are the primary challenges and implications of studying an extinct species like Procoptodon?

Studying an extinct species like Procoptodon presents challenges in terms of limited fossil evidence, interpreting the incomplete record, understanding the past environment, inferring behavior and social structures, incorporating cultural perspectives, and communicating findings to the public.


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