An Ultimate Guide to Pulmonoscorpius: The Lung Scorpion

Leave a comment / / Updated on: 24th September 2023

Name MeaningLung scorpionLength70 cm (2.3 ft)
EraPaleozoic EraEarly Carboniferous LocationScotland (Europe)
ClassificationArachnida, Scorpiones, & Centromachidae

Pulmonoscorpius Pictures

3D illustration of Pulmonoscorpius
3D illustration of Pulmonoscorpius | Lgcfm via ZT2 Download Library Wiki

The Pulmonoscorpius

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Pulmonoscorpius Concept
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Pulmonoscorpius Concept

While large prehistoric creatures seem to take all the popularity that comes with being extinct, several smaller species also share this limelight.

One such creature is the Pulmonoscorpius, the lung scorpion or scorpion with lungs.

Although this animal is small compared to dinosaurs and other prehistoric terrestrial animals, the Pulmonoscorpius was a colossal scorpion in the arachnid class.

These enormous scorpions lived in the Mississippian (Early Carboniferous) subperiod, around 336.0 – 326.4 million years ago.

This genus contains one named species, Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis, from the Latin word pulmonis, meaning lung, and the Greek word skorpios, meaning scorpion.

The name Pulmonoscorpius was derived from the words pulmonis and skorpios which means lung and scorpion respectively
The name Pulmonoscorpius was derived from the words pulmonis and skorpios which means lung and scorpion respectively | Junnn11 via Wikipedia CC BY-SA 4.0

The species name, kirktonensis, refers to the East Kirkton Quarry, home to several fossil remains, and it was named by Andrew J. Jeram.

One of the first discoveries of this species happened in the East Kirkton Quarry, West Lothian, in Scotland.

The discovery of Pulmonoscorpius cannot be attributed to a single individual, as it is a collective result of paleontological research conducted by numerous scientists over the years.

Fossil specimens and remains of Pulmonoscorpius have been studied by various paleontologists, researchers, and experts in the field of arachnid paleontology.

The discovery of Pulmonoscorpius in Scotland was significant, as it represented the first known occurrence of this ancient arachnid genus.

According to experts, this genus likely occupied different parts of Scotland, including the Waukesha Quarry in Fife, the Rhynie Chert Formation, the Lesmahagow Beds, etc.

By exploring these ancient arachnids’ characteristics, adaptations, and ecological roles, researchers gain valuable insights into the mechanisms that shaped life’s evolution and survival strategies over millions of years.

Keep reading to discover more about the Pulmonoscorpius.

Gage Beasley's Prehistoric Shirt Collection
Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Shirt Collection
Gage Beasley's Prehistoric Plush Collection
Gage Beasley’s Prehistoric Plush Collection

Physical Characteristics

Gage Beasley Prehistoric's Pulmonoscorpius Size Comparison Chart
Gage Beasley Prehistoric’s Pulmonoscorpius Size Comparison Chart

Pulmonoscorpius was a giant among arthropods, surpassing the size of any scorpion alive today.

With its elongated body, this ancient creature reached over two feet, and in comparison to its modern counterparts, Pulmonoscorpius was a true giant.

Most scorpions living today are relatively small, with an average length ranging from a few centimeters to a maximum of around eight inches.

Pulmonoscorpius, with its almost three-foot length, far exceeded the size range of present-day scorpions, showcasing its extraordinary stature and unique place in the evolutionary timeline.

There is a lot of debate about the evolutionary adaptations that allowed the creature to grow so large.

One of the prevalent theories suggests that the oxygen-rich environment during the period it existed may have played a role in the growth potential of these ancient scorpions.

Higher oxygen levels would have provided more efficient respiratory processes, allowing for the sustenance of larger body sizes.

The environment in which Pulmonoscorpius lived in allowed it reach its size
The environment in which Pulmonoscorpius lived in allowed it reach its size | HJC02 via Dinopedia

However, further research is needed to fully understand the factors contributing to the remarkable size of Pulmonoscorpius.

One of the defining features of the Pulmonoscorpius was its exoskeleton, providing a protective shield that covered its entire body.

The exoskeleton provided a strong barrier against outside dangers and physical harm since it was made of the complex polysaccharide chitin.

The exoskeleton was tough, flexible, and resistant to desiccation, allowing Pulmonoscorpius to survive in arid environments.

Apart from this exoskeleton, the Pulmonoscorpius had a segmented body.

The creature’s body divided into distinct regions, including the cephalothorax (head and thorax) and the abdomen.

The cephalothorax of Pulmonoscorpius was the powerhouse of its body, comprising the primary organs necessary for survival.

Prosomal and mesosomal ventral structures of a juvenile Pulmonoscorpius
Prosomal and mesosomal ventral structures of a juvenile Pulmonoscorpius | Junnn11 via Wikipedia CC BY-SA 4.0

It housed the brain, which coordinated sensory input and motor responses, enabling the scorpion to navigate its surroundings, while the “abdomen” contained the digestive system, reproductive organs, and the sting.

The creature’s sting was a venomous appendage, or telson, that served as a potent weapon against prey.

This appendage had venom glands, allowing Pulmonoscorpius to immobilize or incapacitate adversaries or potential threats.

Another notable feature of the Pulmonoscorpius was its advanced respiratory system.

This genus represents a fascinating deviation from the typical respiratory system in scorpions.

While most scorpions rely on book lungs, a specialized breathing structure, Pulmonoscorpius may have exhibited a unique adaptation in their respiratory system, earning them their name.

Although the creature’s exact respiratory adaptations remain a topic for research, its name implies the presence of a lung-like structure.

Pulmonoscorpius' unique respiratory adaption is what earned its name
Pulmonoscorpius’ unique respiratory adaption is what earned its name | CyborgIguana via Primeval Fanon Wiki

Some researchers propose that these ancient scorpions may have developed an early version of lungs, representing a transitional stage between book lungs and the more advanced respiratory systems observed in modern arachnids.

Ongoing research, including new fossil specimens and advancements in analytical techniques, offers hope for unraveling the Pulmonoscorpius’ respiration mystery.

Habitat and Distribution

Scorpions have roamed the Earth for millions of years, adapting to various environments and displaying remarkable survival skills, and the Pulmonoscorpius was no different.

According to fossil records, the Pulmonoscorpius inhabited diverse ecosystems when it was alive.

The East Kirkton Quarry, where many fossils lay, was a former limestone quarry in Scotland.

This region is known for its terrestrial and freshwater fossils that date back hundreds of millions of years.

Pulmonoscorpius thrived in various habitats, including upland moorlands, forested areas, and rocky outcrops.

They were highly adaptable and could tolerate different soil conditions as long as they met their burrowing needs.

One of the areas most prominent for Pulmonoscorpius fossils is Scotland.

Although information on this creature’s distribution is limited, records of it in several locations across Scotland exist.

One area that has produced several Pulmonoscorpius fossils is the East Kirkton Quarry in West Lothian.

The Pulmonoscorpius existed for most of the Carboniferous period, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago to the beginning of the Permian Period 298.9 million years ago.

Compared to today, the climate during the start of the Carboniferous was usually more consistent, tropical, and humid.

A Pulmonoscorpius within a tropical and humid backdrop
A Pulmonoscorpius within a tropical and humid backdrop | HJC02 via Dinopedia

During this period, Scotland was affected by north–south directed extension stresses.

Behavior and Diet

Paleontological evidence, such as fossilized trackways and mass accumulations of Pulmonoscorpius specimens, suggests the presence of social interactions within these arachnids.

Fossilized trackways often reveal multiple individuals moving close to one another, indicating possible group behaviors.

In addition, the discovery of numerous fossilized Pulmonoscorpius specimens in close association suggests communal living arrangements.

The specifics of Pulmonoscorpius’ social behavior are still unclear due to the lack of sufficient fossil data, but theories exist based on contemporary scorpions and similar species.

Experts believe the Pulmonoscorpius may have employed cooperative behaviors like foraging, defense, and reproduction.

Collaborative foraging, where individuals work together to secure prey, could have been advantageous in capturing enormous or elusive food sources.

Living in groups also likely provided Pulmonoscorpius with increased protection against predators.

A trio of Pulmonoscorpius
A trio of Pulmonoscorpius | Hadisua via Jurassic World Alive Wiki

By forming defensive formations or aggregating in numbers, they could have deterred potential threats more effectively.

Communication among Pulmonoscorpius is still a topic of speculation due to the limited availability of preserved soft tissues in fossil records.

However, they likely employed various modes of communication, including tactile, visual, and chemical signaling.

They conceivably used vibrations and touch to convey information within their social groups, while visual displays and pheromones might have aided in mating rituals and individual recognition.

The diet of Pulmonoscorpius is not known directly, but it probably preyed on smaller arthropods and small tetrapods.

Experts believe this creature went after insects and smaller organisms, likely using its pedipalps in grasping and immobilizing its prey.

There is also a theory that the Pulmonoscorpius scavenged on the remains of deceased animals, taking advantage of the available food sources.

A Pulmonoscorpius feeding on a carcass
A Pulmonoscorpius feeding on a carcass | Sage242 via ARK: Survival Evolved Wiki

This scavenging behavior would have provided additional sustenance during periods of low prey availability.

However, there is no direct evidence to prove this theory.

Evolution and History

The story of Pulmonoscorpius began with a remarkable fossil discovery in Scotland in the 1980s.

These fossils belonged to a diverse assemblage of ancient organisms, including plants, fungi, insects, and arachnids.

Among them, Pulmonoscorpius, named after its unique pulmonary structure, stood out as a key representative of early scorpion evolution.

A fossilized early scorpion
A fossilized early scorpion | Image via Wikimedia Public Domain

One of the most notable features of Pulmonoscorpius was its respiratory system.

While modern scorpions rely on book lungs, Pulmonoscorpius possessed a unique pulmonary system, similar to that of spiders.

This adaptation allowed for a more efficient exchange of gases, enabling the arachnid to thrive in the oxygen-rich atmosphere.

At the time of this creature’s existence, Earth was a lot different from what it is now.

The land was dominated by ancient plants like mosses and liverworts, forming dense carpets across marshy environments.

These habitats provided Pulmonoscorpius with an abundance of prey, including early insects and other small invertebrates.

This creature likely hid behind vegetation, relying on its keen eyesight to detect potential prey.

A Pulmonoscorpius waiting in ambush
A Pulmonoscorpius waiting in ambush | Lane.hitchcock.5 via Prehistoric Park Wiki

Once within striking distance, it would use its formidable pincers to immobilize and capture its victim. 

Interaction with Other Species

The Pulmonoscorpius was the largest scorpion to exist and because of its size, it ruled ancient landscapes and went after smaller invertebrates and possibly small vertebrates.

The scorpion’s exceptional hunting abilities were crucial for its survival and played a vital role in shaping the dynamics of its environment.

Pulmonoscorpius had a significant impact on the populations of its prey species, and its predatory behavior likely influenced the distribution and abundance of invertebrate communities in its ecosystem.

By selectively targeting certain prey species, Pulmonoscorpius may have influenced their evolution and the development of defensive adaptations.

The presence of Pulmonoscorpius in the ecosystem likely influenced the behavior, adaptations, and evolution of both its prey and competing species, ultimately shaping the community structure of its environment.

A Pulmonoscorpius foraging for food
A Pulmonoscorpius foraging for food | LightSpinner via ARK: Survival Evolved Fandom

Pulmonoscorpius also likely coexisted with various other ancient organisms, including early amphibians, insects, and other arthropods.

These interactions were complex and multifaceted.

Within its own species, Pulmonoscorpius also engaged in territorial disputes and competed for resources such as mates and nesting sites.

These interactions likely influenced the development of elaborate courtship rituals and aggressive behaviors, contributing to the species’ reproductive success and survival.

Cultural Significance 

Pulmonoscorpius has played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of ancient ecosystems.

Paleontologists have meticulously studied its fossilized remains, providing valuable insights into the diversity and ecological interactions during the Carboniferous period.

By reconstructing the anatomy and behavior of Pulmonoscorpius, scientists have gained a better understanding of the early arthropod evolution and the broader context of life on Earth.

Although extinct for millions of years, Pulmonoscorpius has captivated human imagination and inspired artistic representations.

Its unique appearance, reminiscent of a scorpion, has been featured in various forms of media, especially video games.

A group of Pulmonoscorpius as seen in ARK: Survival Evolved
A group of Pulmonoscorpius as seen in ARK: Survival Evolved | Image via ARK: Survival Evolved Wiki

These depictions have contributed to the cultural significance of Pulmonoscorpius, making it a recognizable symbol of prehistoric times.

Pulmonoscorpius has also become a staple in educational materials about paleontology and prehistoric life.

Its inclusion in textbooks and documentaries allows people of all ages to learn about Earth’s ancient history.

By showcasing Pulmonoscorpius, educators and scientists spark curiosity and foster a fascination for the natural world in both children and adults alike.

Some cultures have also incorporated this creature into their folklore and mythologies.

Drawing inspiration from its imposing size and formidable appearance, the Pulmonoscorpius has been associated with concepts of strength, protection, and survival.

It symbolizes the resilience and adaptability needed to thrive in challenging environments.

Pulmonoscorpius' size and lethality has been depicted in different cultures and popular media
Pulmonoscorpius’ size and lethality has been depicted in different cultures and popular media | Image via ARK: Survival Evolved Wiki


Pulmonoscorpius, the ancient lung scorpion, may have been small compared to the iconic giants of prehistoric times, but its significance is undeniable.

This colossal arachnid, with its unique adaptations and formidable size, offers valuable insights into the evolutionary processes that shaped life on Earth during the Carboniferous period.

Beyond its scientific importance, Pulmonoscorpius has captured the imagination of people through its cultural representations, educational value, and symbolic interpretations.

By unraveling the story of Pulmonoscorpius, we gain a deeper appreciation for the diversity and interconnectedness of ancient ecosystems, fostering a sense of wonder and understanding of our shared natural heritage.


Did Pulmonoscorpius have any natural predators?

The fossil record does not provide direct evidence of Pulmonoscorpius predators.

However, being a large and formidable arthropod, it may have faced threats from other large predators of the time, such as early amphibians or other large invertebrates.

How did Pulmonoscorpius reproduce?

Specific details of Pulmonoscorpius reproduction remain unknown due to limited fossil evidence.

However, it is believed that they likely engaged in courtship rituals and had separate sexes, similar to modern scorpions. 


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